1.How to identify leather and imitation leather?
When identifying, the material should be inspected first to determine the type of leather. For example, if the “dermis” grain layer is unmodified, the leather with the original natural characteristics: the pores of the cowhide pores are small, irregular and even; the rows of goat skin are “tile”; the pigskin is three holes. , is a word distribution. The yellow cowhide tissue fibers are fine, the buffalo is rough, and the pores are coarse. For the grain layer to be modified to lose the original features, it should be carefully classified according to the processing technology. The aniline leather coated with aniline is characterized by a bright radiance on the surface, a bright light, no glare, no plastic feeling. Natural leather is made into leather, leather is generally 5~6mm thick, the surface layer is grain surface layer, the tissue fiber is fine and compact, smooth and beautiful, and the strength and wear resistance are good; the inner layer is the suede layer, the fiber is thick and the gap is large. The surface is fluffy. The top layer leather is smoother and flatter than the second layer leather, and the second layer leather is slightly rough. The second layer of leather can be painted, transferred or filmed to make the surface not rough, but the transfer film has poor resistance to low temperature and wrinkles are likely to occur when the temperature is low. The cowhide two-layer leather is flattened, and there is no obvious defect after embossing, while the two-layer leather of pigskin is often faintly visible with three piles of pores, where the gloss is dark. When distinguishing between the shaving leather and the front leather, it should be noted that the shaving leather destroys the original grain layer and then presses the pattern. The pattern can be imitation of cow, sheep, pigskin, etc., but the pattern is free of pores and the pattern is floating. On the surface of the skin, the frontal pores are present and can be identified by careful observation. The artificial leather is coated with a layer of organic material on the base of the fabric, which is thin (like sheep leather), thick (upper foamed organic material, and then pressed on the pattern). Synthetic leather is made by pressing with organic fibers and adding laminated flowers. Recycled leather is made by grinding the skin residue and leather fiber, bonding with high pressure adhesive to form a sheet, and then passing through the sheet to the required thickness, and then finishing, so that it has certain leather characteristics, and is used in a large amount of bags. Leather goods, a small amount used to make shoes.
Summarized from the following aspects:
1) Look. Look at the appearance first, the leather has no base, the artificial material has a base; the leather has small pores, and the imitation leather has no.
2) Touch. Touching by hand, the artificial material plastic is very strong, the gloss is bright, the winter hand touch has a cold feeling, and the leather smooth touch does not have a cold feeling.
3) Smell. The leather smells like animal fat (that is, the skin smell), while the imitation leather has a plastic taste. D. Pressure. Use the thumb to press the softer part of the finished product. There will be many small and even patterns on the dermis around the thumb. The thumb will lift and the pattern will disappear, which is the dermis. The artificial material may have no pattern, and there may be coarse lines and the thumb will be lifted. The pattern does not disappear, indicating that the grain layer on the surface of the material and the underlying mesh layer have been disengaged. E. Check. Observing the cross section, the dermis section is composed of irregular fibers. After scraping off the broken fiber with fingernails, the cross section has no obvious change. For the dermis, the texture of different parts is irregular, the nose smells smelly, and the artificial leather smells plastic or rubber. Taste, the texture rules of each part are consistent. Foil leather is a synthetic surface layer on the loose layer of natural leather. It cannot be called “leather”, but a synthetic leather with a natural leather inner layer as the base. F. water. Place small water droplets on the surface of the skin. After a few minutes, the water droplets spread through the pores, and visible wet spots can be seen to absorb moisture. G. burn. The corners of the burnt skin have a hairy burnt taste, while the imitation leather is a plastic smell. H. color. The leather is dark and soft, and the imitation leather is bright.
2.How to care and maintain leather?
1). Can not be irradiated under strong light to prevent the oil from being dried, resulting in fibrous tissue shrinkage and hardening of the leather.
2). Can not be placed in strong acid to prevent corrosion.
3). When it rains on rainy days, dry it in a ventilated place to prevent mildew.
4). When not in use for a long time, put some paper inside to prevent deformation.
5). The leather bag is delicate and easy to be scratched.
6). When the leather bag is moldy, dry it with a soft cloth, and then apply a care agent such as Bi Lizhu.
3.When there are round bead marks on the top:
1) Remove with leather care agent
2) Wash with milk
3) Use a soft velvet cloth to rub a little oily face cream, the skin will become soft, the ballpoint pen scratches will also be removed.
4) A clean piece can be used The flannel is rubbed with some egg whites to remove the stains and make the leather surface bright as before (this can also be used in the maintenance of leather). The general leather bag, for example, last year’s bag,in this year,there may be mildew on the surface, and you can use a flannel to rub some eggs to wipe it. This leather bag can be restored!
4.What are the three characteristics of the leather?
1) hygienic: 1. Water permeability is 10 meters. About 800 CM of sweat can be passed through within 24 hours. 2. Breathability 100C / hour / CM. 3. Moisture absorption and moisture wicking.
2) durability. Scientifically tested per square meter of leather can withstand 2.5 kg (2KG / M2) weight. Despite the high level of synthetic leather technology, the Clarino F26 produced in Japan is only under pressure of 1KG/M2.
3) heat insulating. Some skins can be exposed to high temperatures of 120-160C. The cold resistance is as low as 50-60C, which is the main material for the air service. When wearing sandals and plastic shoes, you will obviously feel that leather sandals do not burn your feet when you walk on hot days, and plastic shoes will feel hot.
5.What are the characteristics of PVC and PU materials?
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and PU (polyester) are all leather-like. PVC features light weight, easy processing and wear resistance.